Claycomb Associates, Architects

Spring Break is here and the weather is beautiful. I hope everyone has an enjoyable, safe and restful experience. I will post each morning this week as usual, but will not write commentaries.  - read more arw

Congratulations to the following New Supers

Tony Bushhong, current Principal of Klondike ISD, has been named New Super of City View ISD.

Billy Snow, current Chief of Transformation and Innovation of Dallas ISD, has been named New Super of Cedar Hill ISD.

Dr. Paul Uttley, current Superintendent of Vega ISD, has been named New Super of Paradise ISD.

Scott Sheppard, current Assistant Superintendent School Administration Secondary Principal of Cypress-Fairbanks ISD, has been named New Super of Huntsville ISD.


46 Superintendent Vacancies Click to expand

Vacant Anna ISD; Search by: Arrow Educational Services, Inc.INFO
Vacant Presidio ISD; Search by: Dr. Doug Karr InfoINFO
Vacant Sharyland ISD; Search By: Jones, Galligan, Key & Lozano L.L.P InfoINFO
Vacant Perryton ISD; Search By: Region 16 ESC InfoINFO
Vacant Temple ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant Aldine ISD; Search By: Thompson & Horton LLPINFO
Vacant Aledo ISD; Search By: Preston Educational ConsultingINFO
Vacant Pine Tree ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant Conroe ISD; Search by: Rogers, Morris & Grover, L.L.P. INFO
Vacant Alice ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant Reagan County ISD; Search by: Reagan County ISD Board of Trustees InfoINFO
Vacant Tulia ISD; Search By: Tulia ISD School Board InfoINFO
Vacant Lake Worth ISD; Search by: Bob E Griggs and AssociatesINFO
Vacant Brownfield ISD; Search by: Region 17 ESC InfoINFO
Vacant Anahuac ISD; Search by: ​Rogers, Morris & Grover, L.L.P. InfoINFO
Vacant Miles ISD; Search by CCR Educational Consultants Info.INFO
Vacant Brock ISD; Search by: Former School Board President, Bill C. Cooper InfoINFO
Vacant Waller ISD; Search by: Rogers, Morris & Grover, L.L.P. ​InfoINFO
Vacant Texas Association of Rural Schools Executive Director; Search by: The Texas Association of Rural Schools (TARS) Executive Committee InfoINFO
Vacant Plainview ISD; Search by: Thompson & Horton LLPINFO
Vacant Caddo Mills ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant West Sabine ISD; Search by: West Sabine ISD School Board InfoINFO
Vacant Anna ISD Principal; Search by: Arrow Educational Services, Inc. InfoINFO
Vacant Victoria ISD; Search by JG Consulting InfoINFO
Vacant Irion County ISD; Search by: Irion County ISD Board of Trustees InfoINFO
Vacant Kenedy ISD; Search by: Walsh Anderson Gallegos Trevino Russo & Kyle P.C.INFO
Vacant Central Heights ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant Angleton ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant Region 14 Executive Director; Search by Region 14 Service CenterINFO
Vacant Vega ISD; Search by: Vega ISD Board of Trustees InfoINFO
Vacant Fannindel ISD; Search by: Fannindel ISD Board of Trustees InfoINFO
Vacant Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD; Search by: Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Vacant Coleman ISD; Search by: Education Solution and Services InfoINFO
Vacant Hunt ISD; Search by: TASB Executive Search Services infoINFO
Lone Finalist Midway ISD; Randel Beaver; Retired superintendent from Archer City ISD; Search By: Region 9 ESC infoINFO
Lone Finalist Port Neches-Groves ISD; Dr. Mike Gonzales; Elementary Principal of Beaumont ISD; Search By: Port Neches-Groves ISD and Interim Superintendent, Dr. Jimmy Creel INFO
Lone Finalist Red Lick ISD;  Brandon Dennard; Assistant Superintendent of North Lamar ISD; Search By Red Lick ISD School BoardINFO
Lone Finalist Tarkington ISD ; Dr. Marc Keith; Assistant Superintendent of Port Neches- Groves ISD; Search By: Tarkington ISD Board of Trustees InfoINFO
Lone Finalist North Lamar ISD; Dr. Jason Adams; Superintendent in Kerens ISD; Search By: Education Solutions and Services with Letha Hopkins and Randy HancockINFO
Lone Finalist Lorenzo ISD; Kayla Morrison; Former Asst. Superintendent of Roosevelt ISD; Search By Region 17 ESCINFO
Lone Finalist Olton ISD; Kevin McCasland; Principal of Seminole ISD; Search by Region 17 ESCINFO
Lone Finalist Seymour ISD; Search by: Region 9 ESC and  Seymour ISD Board of TrusteesINFO
Lone Finalist Glasscock County ISD; Scott Bicknell; Elementary Principal of Glasscock County; Search by Glasscock County ISD School BoardINFO
Lone Finalist Lumberton ISD - Dr. Jeremy Glenn, Superintendent,Waxahachie ISD; Gerald Chandler; Assistant Superintendent of Lumberton ISD; Search by TASB Executive Search Services InfoINFO
Lone Finalist Hardin ISD; Mr. Gerald Nixon; Executive Director of Human Resources of Sweeny ISD; Search By Arrow Educational Services, Inc.INFO
Lone Finalist Cedars International Academy; Mr. Varghese Panachakunnil; Federal Programs Administrator of ​Pearsall ISD; Search by Dr. Mark Diaz, current Superintendent of Cedars International Academy, will be conducting the search for his replacement. InfoINFO
Lone Finalist Troup ISD; Tammy Jones; Assistant Superintendent of Palestine ISD; Search by The Board of Trustees of Troup ISD InfoINFO
New Super Teague ISD; Chris Skinner; Principal of Teague ISD; Search By: TASB Executive Search Services InfoINFO
New Super Venus ISD ; James Hopper, Superintendent of Anahuac ISD; Search By: TASB Executive Search Services INFO
New Super Bushland ISD; Chris Wigington, Superintendent of Big Spring ISD; Search By: TASB Executive Search ServicesINFO
New Super Comfort ISD; Tanya Monroe; Superintendent of Brownfield ISD; Search By: TASB Executive Search ServicesINFO
New Super Groesbeck ISD; James Cowley; Superintendent of Calhoun County ISD; Search By TASB Executive Search ServicesINFO
New Super City View ISD; Tony Bushong; Principal at Klondike ISD; Search By: Region 9 ESC InfoINFO
New Super Cedar Hill ISD; Billy Snow; Chief of Transformation and Innovation of Dallas ISD; Search By: TASB Executive Search Services INFO
New Super Paradise ISD ; Dr. Paul Uttley; Superintendent of Vega ISD: Search by Paradise ISD School Board and Robert Criswell INFO
New Super Texas Association of School Administrators (TASA) Executive Director; Dr. Kevin Brown; Superintendent of Alamo Heights ISD; Search by Arrow Educational Services, Inc.INFO
New Super Fredericksburg ISD; Jeff Brasher; Superintendent of Gainesville ISD; Search by TASB Executive Search Services INFO
New Super Valley Mills ISD ; Mike Kelly; Middle School Principal of China Spring ISD; Search By: Valley Mills ISD Board of TrusteesINFO
New Super La Vernia ISD - Dr. Trent Edward Lovette, Chief of Governance, Policy & Program Evaluation,Crowley ISD; Search By: Walsh Gallegos & Education Consultant Gary PattersonINFO

Texas Commission on Public School Finance

March 1609:04 AM

March 19, 2018 - 9 a.m. Agenda* William B. Travis Building - Room 1-104 1701 N. Congress Ave., Austin, TX  The meetings will be webcast at:    *Please note: Public testimony will be limited to three minutes per person and sign up sheets will be posted on this website two days prior to the meeting and available at the meeting. For those unable to attend the meeting for public testimony, written testimony can be emailed to view article  arw

Will Texas school finance panel tell schools to do more with less? Some members think it’s predetermined

March 1605:40 AM

As Texas' school finance commission is set hold its next hearing, some members and policy experts are arguing the hearings seem set toward a predetermined outcome — making schools do more with the funding they have.  A state panel responsible for proposing improvements to Texas' embattled public school finance system is facing criticism from an unexpected source: some of its own members, who say the panel's hearings seem geared toward a predetermined outcome of making schools do more with their current funding. view article  arw

Weather Week: A Cool, Beautiful Spring Break on Tap

March 1405:00 AM

The only predictable thing about weather in Houston is its unpredictability. It has been a remarkably up and down winter with temperatures ranging from freezing to 80-degree days leaving all of us to bring a sweater or jacket just about everywhere just in case.  This weekend was no exception. Saturday reached a high of 82 degrees with warm, muggy conditions across the region. Sunday began in similar fashion before a front swept through dropping temperatures into the 60s by early evening. This week's weather is a little more consistent. view article  arw

Preventive Law: Just How Confidential Are CPS Reports?

March 0108:35 AM

Reporting suspected abuse or neglect to Child Protective Services has always been an affirmative duty in Texas, and even more so for educators who bear additional responsibility to convey their concerns timely on behalf of students. One way that this duty is made less intimidating is the assurance that the identity of the reporter will be kept confidential. In this age of government transparency through Public Information Act requests and parent inspection of student records under FERPA, just how confidential can these reports stay? This is a common concern voiced by educators, and with good reason: doing the right thing under the reporting statute seldom wins friends.

2017 Tax Ratification Elections/Results

November 1309:00 AM

Election information related to all Tax Ratification Elections in 2016

No foul play as fire damages, destroys 5 Texas school buses

March 1608:40 AM

Investigators are trying to determine what sparked a fire that damaged or destroyed five Texas school buses parked in a transportation lot during spring break. A statement from the Coldspring-Oakhurst Independent School District says authorities do not suspect foul play in Wednesday night's fire. Nobody was hurt in the blaze in Colspring, a town of about 900 located 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Houston. view article  arw

Beaumont ISD to begin accepting student transfers, may need to reassign small number of students

March 1608:40 AM

The Beaumont Independent School District will be accepting student transfer requests beginning on March 19 and may be reassigning a few students due to low enrollment at some schools. The district warns parents that the several schools in the district are already contending with overcrowding according to ta release from the district. view article  arw

During Sunshine Month, put spotlight on government accountability

March 1608:40 AM

Shining light on government to hold it accountable is hardly a new idea. In fact, Texas was a national leader in this realm for more than 40 years.  Sadly, the flow of public information in this huge state is slipping from the sunshine into the shadows.  Some state leaders have been dimming the lights, ensuring that even the most basic information about our government is getting more difficult to uncover: Who, really, is that candidate running for office? How are our hard-earned tax dollars being spent? Remember the Alamo, and how do we track its restoration money? view article  arw

Commentary: If only Texas funded schools like it funded the primaries

March 1608:38 AM

Let’s ponder a couple of things after the Texas primaries proved again that well-funded candidates win — and win by big margins. If money plays a role to boost a candidate’s chance to win, why wouldn’t money play a role to provide a better education system?  We have been told repeatedly that there is enough — even too much — money in public education, and we just need to be more efficient. I propose public education has become so efficient, it cannot meet the needs of children. view article  arw

Local charter school could close after school year

March 1608:38 AM

The University of Texas at Tyler Innovation Academy (UTTIA) in Palestine, a charter public school serving more than 200 second- to eleventh-grade students from East Texas, could close at the end of the school year. UT Tyler spokesman Lucas Roebuck told the Herald-Press on Wednesday the school building failed the state fire marshal's inspection in August. The UTTIA building was deemed unfit for students, just weeks before the school year. view article  arw

Analysis: Not a blue wave, but deep enough to get some Republican feet wet

March 1608:33 AM

Republicans outnumber Democrats in Texas, if your measure is turnout for the two major party primaries. But in three of the state's largest counties — Bexar, Dallas and Harris — Democrats outran Republicans this year.  Not every political consultant will flash their list of government seats they believe are up for grabs this year. But some will, and here’s the thing: The Democratic and Republican consultants agree on a lot of the names. view article  arw

300 federal agents swarm Austin in search for bombing suspect or suspects

March 1608:30 AM

AUSTIN — Austin police have received a flood of tips but lack a profile of the person or people who planted three package bombs on the door steps of houses in the capitol city’s minority neighborhoods, Interim Police Chief Brian Manley told hundreds of people at a community meeting Thursday.  City authorities are holding out hope that the 300 federal agents helping Austin’s police department will yield faster results in the search for who could have killed two people and seriously injured two others in the mysterious bombs. But Manley said the investigation could take weeks or months. view article  arw

Rice University gets record number of applications for the Fall 2017 semester

March 1608:30 AM

Rice University is considered one of, if not the top, most selective school in the state of Texas, and it looks like people are starting to take notice of its prestige. The private research university received a record 20,900 applications for the Fall 2017 semester, which represents nearly a 20 percent increase in applications. The largest year-over-year growth in the history of the school, according to the Rice website. view article  arw

Battle over private school choice playing out at Texas polls

March 1608:30 AM

The battle over whether public money should be spent on private school tuition played out at polls across the state this month and will continue in runoff contests on May 22.  Public school teachers, who launched a noteworthy get-out-the-vote campaign, and supporters of so-called private school choice ended the March 2 Texas House primaries in a draw. view article  arw

Bulletin Board

Submit Event »

Eichelbaum Wardell Hansen Powell & Mehl, P.C.

Construction Trainings

April - June 2018

Construction Procurement
Episode I: A Bid to Survivie - The Rise of the Procurist


If you only attend one construction procurement training this year, this is the one to choose. Whether you are new to construction procurement or it’s been a while since your last project, you will get the foundation you need to succeed. Ask around, if you come to this training you will be ready to go when the board says it’s time to build. 


Training Dates

4/17/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
5/11/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
6/15/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
7/16/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX




Design Phase
Episode II: The Best Laid Plans


This session teaches how to handle negotiations, communications, and pressure when dealing with designers, contractors, and even the board; unique problems and features of the available methods of delivery; and what your architect and construction manager should deliver during the design phase.


Training Dates

5/16/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
6/20/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
7/17/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX




Construction Phase and Beyond
Episode III: Operation Build


In this, the third of our three-part series, learn how to get what you paid for. That means knowing what you paid for in terms of the responsibilities of the design pro’s and construction team. It means knowing how to document unsatisfactory performance, knowing when to pay the money, and how not to pay more than you owe. Termination, warranties, construction claims, change orders, time extensions, final payment, and bond claims are all essential concepts we cover in this training.


Learn how to get what you paid for, handle designer/contractor turf wars, change orders, and delays. Learn document failures to meet contractual obligations, end relationships or try to save floundering projects. Learn bond claim essentials and strategies to avoid disputes and construction defects.


Training Dates

5/17/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
6/21/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX
7/18/18  |  9:30 am - 2:30 pm  |  Austin, TX


For more information and to register online click here.

View Bulletin Board »

San Antonio Fire Department’s crews who rescued student from cave share details on dramatic ordeal

March 1608:30 AM

Members of the San Antonio Fire Department’s Technical Rescue Team spoke to KSAT 12 on Thursday about the recent night they were called into action to save an 18-year-old student who got stuck inside a North Side cave. The Lee High School student was part of an earth, space and science class on a field trip to the cave at the Robber Baron Preserve. view article  arw

Late night blaze claims five Coldspring ISD buses

March 1608:30 AM

A blaze broke out in the Coldspring-Oakhurst CISD bus barn on the night of March 14 and took five buses with it before firefighters stopped it from spreading. Firefighters from Shepherd Volunteer Fire Department and Coldspring Fire Department arrived on scene around 10 p.m. to handle the situation. The cause of the fire is unknown at this time. Coldspring-Oakhurst CISD school board members and Superintendent Dr. Leland Moore were also on the scene along with San Jacinto County Sheriff Greg Capers and local law enforcement. view article  arw

Medical emergency not ruled out in bus crash that killed driver, injured Channelview students

March 1608:30 AM

The driver of a tour bus that crashed into an Alabama ravine, killing him and injuring Channelview ISD band students on their way home, died from blunt force trauma, according to a preliminary autopsy report. The finding does not rule out that the driver experienced a medical emergency before the crash, Baldwin County Coroner Stan Vinson said. view article  arw

Broward Deputy Scot Peterson seen standing outside during Florida school shooting in new video

March 1608:30 AM

Broward Deputy Scot Peterson stands safely behind a concrete wall taking no action as high school students lay dead and wounded just feet away, newly released video of the Florida school shooting shows. The Broward Sheriff’s Office released the 27-minute video Thursday of the former longtime resource officer responding to initial reports of a shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School on Feb. 14. Peterson, who was assigned to the school and on site when the shooting began, is seen with a civilian security monitor at the start of the video, but spends most of the video standing outside the school with his gun drawn. view article  arw

Here are 6 proposed Leander ISD superintendent performance goals for the 2018-19 school year

March 1608:29 AM

Next year’s proposed superintendent performance goals were presented to the Leander ISD board of trustees March 8. The goals’ aim is to increase student achievement, engagement and performance. Each goal includes targets for the district to meet, with progress updates reported throughout the year. LISD trustees are set to vote on establishing these superintendent performance goals for 2018-19 school year on March 22, according to meeting documents. view article  arw

Obituary:  Robert Chambers was superintendent for San Antonio, Boerne and Lackland school districts

March 1608:29 AM

An educator whose former students remember him fondly, Robert George Chambers was stern but approachable.  Catching a group of students at an off-campus cafe during lunch one day, Chambers reminded them to get back to class after their meal. Then he paid for their lunch. While many students avoided those in authority, with Chambers “you wanted to stay there and keep talking to him and listening to him,” said David Sims, who attended Jefferson when Chambers was the dean of boys at the school. “He was always in the hall greeting the kids during passing periods.” view article  arw

Harleton ISD issues statement on resignation of Superintendent

March 1608:29 AM

Harleton, TX (KLTV) - Harleton ISD has issued a statement on the resignation of Superintendent Dr. Craig Coleman. The announcement of his resignation was made on Wednesday.  The statement reads as followed: The Board's investigation for purposes of evaluating Coleman's performance has been concluded without incident or report and he has been reinstated from administrative leave.  However, recognizing that he and the Board have differing leadership philosophies moving forward, Dr. Coleman has announced his resignation as Superintendent of Schools for the Harleton Independent School District.  An agreement has been reached which allows Dr. Coleman the ability to pursue other interests and permits the Board to pursue hiring another Superintendent.  The Board and Dr. Coleman have entered into the Agreement believing it is in their respective best interests and in the best interests of the District. view article  arw

Dr. Jack Cockrill, former Gilmer ISD superintendent, passes at 79

March 1608:29 AM

Jack Cockrill, 79, of Kerrville, TX, passed away peacefully in his home on March 11, 2018 in Kerrville, TX. He was born in Stringtown, OK to Clive Baker and Thelma Lou Cockrill on September 7, 1938. He married Nancy Lee Mooney on September 26, 1957. He began his career in education as a history/government teacher and coach and served in Plano ISD for 16 years as teacher/coach, principal, personnel director, and assistant superintendent. He coached on two state championship football teams. He served 5 years in the superintendency at Gilmer ISD, followed by 5 years in Kerrville ISD, followed by 14 years in Mckinney ISD. He continued to serve other school districts in leadership roles as interim superintendent for the next 15 years. - Full Obituary  

Coleman ISD hires Education Solution and Services

March 1608:29 AM

Coleman ISD Board of Trustees voted to hire Education Solution and Services to conduct a search for a new superintendent. Details and updates will appear on our search page as things progress. 


March 1608:29 AM

Hunt ISD Board of Trustees voted to hire TASB Executive Search Services (ESS) to conduct a search for a new superintendent. Details and updates will appear on our search page as things progress.

Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD Hires Executive Search Services

March 1608:29 AM

Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD Board of Trustees voted to hire TASB Executive Search Services (ESS) to conduct a search for a new superintendent. Details and updates will appear on our search page as things progress.

Is It Time To Bring Risk Back Into Our Kids’ Playgrounds?

March 1608:25 AM

I think it's fair to say that many parents focus a lot of energy — and worry! — on protecting their small kids from risky situations. But it turns out that integrating limited risk into our kids' playtime may be taking a step toward healthier child development. This past weekend, reporter Ellen Barry published a piece in The New York Timesabout a growing movement in Britain to bring risk into the playground experience. Measures include: erecting handmade play equipment like 20-ft. climbing towers; leaving intact gorse bushes that are quite spiky; supervising children in the use of knives, saws, and other tools; and building fires right in the play area. view article  arw

San Antonio: Charter school plan merits OK

March 1608:25 AM

The San Antonio Independent School District board is about to take another brave but necessary step to bring high quality education to all students, including the ones who have been assigned to failing schools for years. Forming a partnership with Democracy Prep to operate an in-district charter school at P.F. Stewart Elementary School is the best available choice for a turnaround. In January, the SAISD board voted to approve an in-district charter application for Stewart Elementary, a campus that the Texas Education Agency has rated “improvement required” for many years. Unless the district takes action right away, the law will require the commissioner of education to either appoint a board of managers to take over SAISD or order the campus closed. Stewart is among a handful of SAISD campuses that have not “met standard” for many years. view article  arw

Mesquite: School board approves before, after school program

March 1608:25 AM

The Mesquite ISD Board of Trustees recently approved awarding a before- and after-school program for students at Mesquite ISD’s 25 elementary campuses that do not currently have programs. Chief of Governmental Affairs Jarod Mendenhall reported that there are eight elementary sites in MISD that have the After School Adventures program, which is offered through the Mesquite Park and Recreation Department, and Hanby Elementary is under the YMCA. view article  arw

Brownsville ISD, judge postpone grievance hearing

March 1608:25 AM

Court records indicate that a state district judge and the Brownsville Independent School District were unable to resolve a dispute that resulted in a federal lawsuit during a March 6 grievance hearing. On Nov. 30, 2017, 404th State District Judge Elia Cornejo-Lopez, in her capacity as a parent of students attending the school district, filed a lawsuit against BISD accusing administrators and trustees of mistreating her children and retaliating against them after she filed a grievance against the district, alleging that it violated her child’s constitutional rights when it didn’t allow her child to take an AP Psychology class but allowed another similarly situated student to take an AP Chemistry class. view article  arw

Garland: Uncontested candidates results in no trustee election

March 1608:25 AM

During the last Garland ISD School Board the Board of Trustees approved canceling the school board election that would’ve been held on May 5 if the candidates had not been uncontested. view article  arw

I want to teach math; Dallas ISD is making me teach test-taking

March 1608:25 AM

I decided to be a teacher so I could inspire more kids to enjoy mathematics — not just know how to do math, but to see how it could be a fun and challenging puzzle.  Unfortunately, frequent high-stakes testing under Dallas ISD's Teacher Excellence Initiative makes me feel as though I rarely have time to teach kids the fun of math because I'm so busy teaching them how to find the right answers to multiple-choice questions. view article  arw

$1.4M in Funds Approved for Security Changes in Brownsville ISD Schools

March 1608:25 AM

The Brownsville Independent School District plans to implement about $1.4 million in security changes in all their schools. We’re told most of the money will go towards hiring 21 additional police officers for the district. view article  arw

Dayton ISD stepping into the future with student health

March 1608:25 AM

Dayton ISD has uniquely been involved in a pilot program that is changing the way health care is delivered to individuals, companies, and now schools. Last year, the Texas Legislature passed a bill allowing the use of telehealth in public schools. Gov. Greg Abbott signed the measure into law the first week of May. The ink had barely dried when Superintendent Dr. Jessica Johnson was sought out by officials with Neighbors Health and asked to involve DISD in a pilot program for the futuristic help. view article  arw

Hawkins School Board discusses safety options

March 1608:25 AM

A discussion of school security dominated the Hawkins School Board regular meeting Thursday evening at the school’s administration building. Superintendent Morris Lyon broadly outlined three options for enhancing security which were the Guardian Program, the School Marshal Program and school security guards often referred to as school resource officers. The discussion revolved mainly around input received from the legal firm of Powell and Leon regarding the legal implications of each measure. view article  arw